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  • Документ
    Participation of the PRC in the Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Other Countries of the Central Asia in 1990-2016: Foreign Policy and Economic Factors
    (2023) Подрєз Юлія Вікторівна; Podriez Yuliia Viktorivna
    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the military- political and economic situation in the world had changed radically. The Berlin Wall fell ,The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) stopped its existence, the socialist bloc of countries in Europe and the USSR collapsed. The world was no more bipolar. The PRC, led by the CCP, despite the ruling Communist Party ideology, strived to take advantage of these changes. China aimed to open for itself foreign markets, including energy resources. PRC’s rejection from complete isolationism, the initial cessation of confrontation with the United States and countries of the West, and then cessation of the struggle with the USSR and its allies for leadership in building a world socialist system, allowed Chinese government not only to save huge resources, including energy, which went to maintenance of a huge army and ambitious military-political projects, by directing them in a peaceful direction, but also by starting the introduction of market reforms, what changed China’s image in the world from a negative to a positive one. Since the formation on the territory of the former Soviet Central Asia of the independent states of Central Asia – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan – hydrocarbon resources of the region acquired key importance in the foreign policy of the new countries. China formed the priorities of its foreign energy policy in relation to Central Asia gradually. Energy expansion of Beijing was preceded by an active trade and economic policy, the results of which created preconditions for the foreign policy refocusing of the countries of the region. Pipelines became an important element of energy policy, proposed and implemented by Beijing for the supply of hydrocarbon resources in Chinese direction. Beijing achieves access to new oil and gas deposits, expecting due to their development, to realize promising plans to increase the exports volume of hydrocarbon raw materials from Central Asia countries.
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    Concepts of Regional Association of Central and Eastern European Countries
    (2023) Михтуненко Вікторія Вікторівна; Mykhtunenko Viktoriia Viktorivna
    At the current stage, there is no doubt about the role of the “Three Seas” initiative in the regional schedule. However, it is worth noting that one of the impetuses for its actualization was the world confrontation that arose after Russia’s encroachments on the territory of Ukraine (the annexation of Crimea and the instigation of the war in the East of Ukraine). Today, this idea of unification of states in the space from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas, as it was at its inception, is actively supported by the USA. Over the past eight years, the attitude towards this program on the part of Germany and the European Union has also changed in a positive direction. In fact, from Poland’s attempt to realize its historical Central European ambitions, the Three Seas initiative was transformed into a prototype of the new Eastern Europe as an integral part of the transatlantic community. The interest of modern Polish politicians in the concept of “Mizhmorya” is a continuation of the tradition and political thought of Józef Piłsudski. First of all, the concept of “Mizhmorya” is closely related to his view of Poland’s foreign policy in the interwar period. However, its origins go back to the beginning of the 20th century, when there were discussions about Poland’s borders and its role in Europe after it gained independence. The main question concerned Poland’s ability to effectively resist the expansion of neighboring states – Germany and Russia. The actualization of the “Mizhmorya” concept at the current stage and the transformation of the latter into the “Three Seas” initiative began after the Russian aggression in Ukraine in 2014. In its current version, the concept includes the southern and eastern vectors of integration. This is a qualitative change, since for many centuries Poland’s foreign policy was formed on the East-West axis, paying much less attention to the North-South axis. It is worth noting that the concept of “Mizhmorya”, which in its current version has turned into “Three Seas”, is not considered as an alternative for membership in the EU and NATO. At the current stage, it does not have an independent character, complementing the generally pro-Western orientation of Poland and its other participants. In connection with the involvement of 12 countries in the “Three Seas Initiative” and the active role of Croatia, Romania and other states in it, it is losing connection with the original concept of the “Midsea”. It is becoming a format of regional cooperation within the EU, but it has quite strong foundations. Its success also depends on external factors: West-Russia relations, US activity in Central and Eastern Europe, and the difficult-to-predict future of the European Union. One can debate for a long time about the functionality and competitiveness of the new association in relation to other numerous regional entities, but one thing remains important: the implementation of the “Three Seas” initiative will start the process of building the energy independence of the countries of the Eastern European region from Russia. At the summit on June 20, 2022, the countries of the “Three Seas” initiative granted Ukraine the special status of a participating partner of the association. It is worth noting that Ukraine’s membership in “Trimory” is part of our country’s path to membership in the European Union. The concept envisages the development of world trade through the creation of new European logistics corridors, therefore it is important for Ukraine to become one of the transitors along these routes. Several areas of Ukraine’s cooperation with the participating countries of the “Three Seas” should be highlighted: the creation of the trans-European highway Via Carpathia, where Ukraine will play the role of an important logistics center; energy cooperation, Ukraine has one of the largest gas storages in the region and, using the capabilities of the Poland-Slovakia, PolandUkraine interconnectors, it is possible to meet the needs of all countries of the Three Seas; the export of Ukrainian electricity can help the countries of the “Three Seas” to become independent from the energy pressure of the Russian Federation; infrastructure and digitalization (countries should work on expanding checkpoints at the borders of Ukraine). Our state can support many infrastructure projects in the field of digitization and strengthen regional digital connections. So, the “Three Seas” initiative is Ukraine’s perspective to take a place on the European market and completely abandon logistical ties with the occupying country.
  • Документ
    The Oslo Agreements and the 2000 Camp David Summit: the Attempt Of US President B. Clinton and his Administration to Settle the Arab-Israeli Соnflict Peacefully in 1993-2001
    (2023) Моцак Світлана Іванівна; Motsak Svitlana Ivanivna; Токаренко Ігор; Tokarenko Ihor
    The article analyzes the Oslo 1 and Oslo 2 agreements, the 2000 summit in Camp David as attempts to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict with the direct participation of U.S. President Bill Clinton and his administration in 1993–2001. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the content of the agreements and the positions of the parties regarding the peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The main structural elements of the Oslo 1 and Oslo 2 agreements have been identified. The opinions of the leaders of Israel and Palestine regarding the possibility of a complete settlement of the conflict are analyzed. US President Bill Clinton’s views on the process of settling the Arab-Israeli conflict during the Camp David summit are provided. The principled positions of the leader of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat regarding Jerusalem and the creation of an independent Palestine are highlighted. The purpose of the research is to analyze the Oslo 1, Oslo 2 agreements and the 2000 Camp David summit as an attempt by U.S. President B. Clinton and his administration to implement the process of peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The methodological basis of the research was the principles of objectivity, historicism and systematicity with the use of general scientific research methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization of information. The scientific novelty of the publication consists in a comprehensive analysis of the peace talks Oslo 1, Oslo 2 and the summit in Camp David in 2000, as the attempts of U.S. President B. Clinton and his administration at the negotiating table to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1993– 2001. Conclusions. The agreements Oslo 1, Oslo 2 and the summit in Camp David in 2000 became a real breakthrough in relations between Israel and Palestine, for the first time in the last decades of the 20th century there were real reasons to believe that the Arab-Israeli conflict would still be possible resolve peacefully. However, despite all attempts, the Oslo-1, Oslo-2 and the 2000 Camp David summit did not finally resolve the conflict in the Middle East. In the societies of both states, new radical options for resolving the conflict were maturing, which eventually led to a new intifada of the Palestinian people.
  • Документ
    German-Ukrainian Cooperation: Activities of the Fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future”
    (2023) Концур Вікторія; Kontsur Viktoriia; Концур Микола; Kontsur Mykola
    The article examines the transformation of the activities of the Fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future” (germ. “Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft”) of the Federal Republic of Germany and German-Ukrainian cooperation in the cultural and educational sphere. The experience of interaction between former enemies during the Second World War is considered in relation to extremely painful issues of historical memory in Ukraine and Germany in order to overcome historical traumas. During the Second World War, Ukraine was one of the main regions for the export of Ostarbeiters to Nazi Germany. For a long time, a large proportion of forced laborers were not subject to the German compensation law. Only at the end of the 20th century, the German and international public raised the issue of payments to former forced laborers. In 1998, the Bundestag decided to create a fund to pay compensation with financial participation from German industry. The fund paid one-time compensation primarily to former concentration camp prisoners and deported civilian workers from Central and Eastern Europe. Out of the total amount of compensation of 4.4 billion euros, Ukraine received more than 400 million euros. In 2010, the payments were completed, but the fund continued and expanded its activities. Today, the fund supports the implementation of international projects aimed at strengthening partnership and cooperation between Germany and countries that suffered from the consequences of National Socialism. The fund’s annual reports show that Ukraine is the undisputed leader among the partner countries in the implementation of these projects. Such fruitful cooperation became possible thanks to the activities of Ukrainian organizations, unions and funds regarding comprehensive support and assistance from the state and society to the victims of Nazism. The active partners of the German fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future” are the Ukrainian Union of Prisoners-Victims of Nazism and the Ukrainian Cultural Fund. Among the products of this international cooperation are an online archive and an online educational platform that can be effectively used for scientific and educational purposes. Thus, the fund became a kind of expression of the political and moral responsibility of the German state for the damages caused by the National Socialist regime, and a cultural and educational bridge between the former irreconcilable enemies.
  • Документ
    Ecological Modernization of the European Union Economy in Condition of Political and Financial Limits
    (2023) Horobets Ihor Volodymyrovych; Горобець Ігор Володимирович; Martynov Andrey; Мартинов Андрій
    Тhe history of mankind from a material point of view is a change in technological systems, which determined the forms of organization of economic life. History has recorded many phase crises associated with the transition from one technological mode to another. The key objectives of the EU environmental policy are: combating climate change, ensuring biodiversity, limiting the negative impact of production on human health and quality of life, rational use of natural resources, waste recycling. Environmental policy is a joint competence of the Member States and the EU bodies. The goals of the EU’s common agricultural policy are: increasing agricultural productivity, ensuring social protection of farmers, stabilizing agricultural markets, food security, maintaining reasonable consumer prices for agricultural goods, and providing export subsidies. EU countries’ strategies for the energy sector are different. France remains a supporter of nuclear energy. Germany is closing down nuclear power plants, necessitating an increase in energy production from thermal power plants and alternative energy sources. Achieving new environmental standards in industry raises questions of socio-political stability, as there is a risk of job losses in the old industrial sectors and the slow creation of new jobs. Such disparities can negatively affect the political support of "green" environmental political parties, especially in the countries of "old" Europe. The political positions of the "greens" in the countries of the "new" Europe are less influential. This fact complicates the formation of a joint environmental group of influence in the EU in order to exert political pressure to implement environmental modernization of the economy. That is, the success of the ecological modernization of the EU economy systematically depends on the internal capacity of elites and European societies to implement this course and on the favorable balance of power in a globalized world.
  • Документ
    The Priorities of Mexico’s Foreign Policy at the Beginning of 21 Century: Overview of Amlo Administration
    (СумДПУ імені А. С. Макаренка, 2023) Bohdanova Tetiana; Богданова Тетяна; Тихоненко Ірина; Tykhonenko Iryna
    The article attempts to analyze the priorities of Mexico’s foreign policy at the beginning of the XXI century with an emphasis on reviewing the foreign policy strategy of the administration of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO). The methodological basis of the study is a comparative analysis of Mexico’s foreign policy priorities. Currently, Mexico is the leading state in Latin America, which tries to implement an autonomous foreign policy, being involved in all international affairs. In the XXI century Mexico moved away from the policy of isolationism in accordance with the Estrada doctrine and began to be guided by the Castañeda doctrine  to conduct an active foreign policy both at the regional and global levels of the international system. Therefore, the following goals of Mexico’s foreign policy strategy can be defined: support of regional autonomy and a balanced policy in the international arena, issues of social and economic development of the state, relations with the U.S. Despite the ambitious goals of Mexican foreign policy, the state has a number of internal problems that undoubtedly affect its positioning in the world. It is worth noting that the administration of the previous President Peña Nieta emphasized the positioning of Mexico as an active player in the international arena. In turn, the López Obrador administration, being populist, puts domestic politics as the primary goal of its activities  following the principle “the best foreign policy is a good domestic policy”. Therefore, Mexican priorities under the AMLO administration are the development of trade and economic cooperation with Central American states, relations with the United States (in particular, within the framework of the USMCA and the reduction of migration flows), as well as non-interference in global issues of international politics. It should be noted that such non-interference is quite controversial on the example of the Russian-Ukrainian war  neutrality in condemning Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and the existing pro-Russian position of the leading political elites.
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    Malaysia: Main Foreign Policy Priorities and Bilateral Relations with Ukraine
    (2023) Krupenia Iryna; Крупеня Ірина
    The article examines the main priorities of Malaysia’s foreign policy and bilateral relations between Malaysia and Ukraine. It was established that in the first years of independence, the foreign policy of Malaysia was mainly in the wake of the foreign policy of the former Great Britain. It was emphasized that the foreign policy of Malaysia underwent the greatest fundamental changes during the rule of M. Mohammad, who served as prime minister twice (1981-2003), (2018-2021). It was established that the main priorities of Malaysia’s foreign policy were pragmatism, guaranteeing political stability, readiness for modernization, creating a favourable investment climate, regional cooperation with ASEAN partners and strengthening relations with Muslim countries. Malaysia’s current foreign policy priorities are determined by such key factors as its strategic location in the PSA, the country’s positioning as a trading nation, as well as its unique demographics. The article also analyses the current state of interstate relations (political, trade-economic, humanitarian, etc.) between Ukraine and Malaysia and the possibilities of their further development. It has been established that there are many opportunities for further development of mutually beneficial bilateral trade and sectoral cooperation. The position of Malaysia regarding the war of aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine was separately investigated.
  • Документ
    Restoration and Activity of the Sumy Region Spiritual Education Institution in the Modern Period (1997-2015)
    (2023) Taraban Yurii; Тарабан Юрій
    The article is devoted to the latest stage of the only confessional institution of spiritual education in the Sumy Region which is Sumy Theological Seminary named after His Beatitude Metropolitan Volodymyr (Sabodan) of Kyiv. The article traces the history of the spiritual and educational institution: from the Okhtyrka Theological School (1819), which was moved to Sumy (1889), its closure in 1919, to the resumption of the school’s activities in 1998 and the opening of Sumy Theological Seminary on its basis. The 25th anniversary of the educational process restoration in Sumy Pastoral and Theological School provides an opportunity to study the activity latest stages of Sumy Institution of Spiritual Education. Since 2015 the school was reorganized into Sumy Theological Seminary, which was named in honor of His Beatitude Metropolitan Volodymyr (Sabodan) and operates in this status today. The structure and specifics of the spiritual education institution activity are traditionally closed and have other specific features significantly different from other educational institutions. Thus, it causes research interest. The relevance and practical significance of studying the history and latest updates of Sumy Theological Seminary is also due to the exclusivity of the institution. Sumy Theological Seminary is currently the only denominational institution of spiritual education in the Sumy Region. The study of the spiritual educational institution in the Sumy Region, its history, and its current state, allow us to obtain more precise data about education in the Sumy Region in general. The history of spiritual education in the Region is an integral part of its heritage and defines the contours of its regional cultural and historical portrait, requiring further thorough research. The results of scientific research can be used in the process of studying the history of the Sumy Region as a separate region, educational institutions of the Region, the study of local history and historical-pedagogical courses in pedagogical higher education institutions of Ukraine, in institutions of postgraduate pedagogical education, as well as in religious educational institutions. The purpose of the research is to reproduce little-known facts of the history of Sumy and the Sumy Region, related to the activities of the theological school and seminary, as also individual facts of the religious and social life of the Sumy Region.
  • Документ
    Topography and Defensive Buildings of Kotelva Hillfort
    (2023) Коротя Олексій; Korotia Oleksii
    The article is devoted to the results of archaeological explorations on the territory of the Kotelva hillfort, which is located to the northeast of the Bilsk hillfort. Today, the Kotelva hillfort is one of the controversial archaeological sites, which contains materials from the Bronze Age and the final stage of the Early Iron Age. The peculiarity of this archaeological site is that it is located on the left bank of the Vorskla river, which is unique for the Early Iron Age settlements of this region. Earlier, its belonging to the Scythian period was doubted. In addition, there are no finds from the VI-IV centuries BC on the hillfort, and it was at this time that all the Scythian hillforts known today were built, which also complicates the dating of defensive structures in particular. Today, the question of the origin of the fortifications of the hillfort and their connection with the archaeological cultures discovered during the excavations of recent years is relevant. Two important aspects were highlighted in the work, namely, the analysis of the paleorelief and defensive structures of the hillfort, the solution of which will allow us to answer the time of its origin and the specifics of the location of this monument.
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    Jehovah’s Witnesses under the Control of Soviet Security Services (1945-1951)
    (2023) Tryhub Oleksandr; Тригуб Олександр
    In September 1945, the NKGB (The People’s Commissariat for State Security) of the Ukrainian SSR opened an agent-operational case is called ‘Zavet’ (‘Testament’) against supporters of the Jehovah’s Witnesses. The factual basis for the “creating” a centralized case was the agential and investigative materials at the disposal of the NKGB, which, according to the state security personnel, “testified” that on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR “illegal formations of sectarian Jehovah’s Witnesses existed and carried out active anti-Soviet activities.” The presence of a singleleading center of the ‘Jehovist underground in Ukraine’ was also assumed. The leaders of religious groups were immediately taken into operational development in Alchevsk, Yasynovata and Avdiivka in the Donbas, Lviv, Kyiv region, etc. According to operational data, the ‘Jehovists’ were extremely hostile to the Soviet government, called it “satanic” and agitated for its non-recognition. Many ordinary believers did not officially work anywhere, did not recognize any documents, avoided any kind of registration, and so on. Since such a line of behavior was considered “anti-Soviet” by the official authorities, thedenomination itself entered the camp of “hostile” and requiring immediate prompt response. The latter was expressed in unofficial repressions and the introduction of internal agents into the environment of the Jehovah’s Witnesses. The first arrests were carried out during December 1945 – January 1946, which continued until the early 1950s. The impossibility of resolving the issue of Jehovah’s Witnesses by agential and operational measures led the NKGB to think about more radical measures. In March 1951, a plan was prepared for the deportation of Jehovah’s Witnesses supporters. More than 8,000 believers were supposed to be evicted, information about whom had been collected by state security agencies for a number of years. As final points of deportation, first of all, the Irkutsk and Tomsk regions were planned. Therefore, the operation received the code name ‘Sever’ (‘North’). The eviction was carried out on the territory of the Lviv, Volyn, Rivne, Drohobych, Stanislav, Ternopil and Chernivtsi regions of the Ukrainian SSR. A total of 1,788 families were evicted, with a total of 6,310 people (data not complete). The completion of operation ‘Sever’ actually completed the work on the centralized agentoperational case ‘Zavet’. At the same time, repression against Jehovah’s Witnesses continued in the future.
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    Language as One of the Key Factors of National Identity Through The Prism of Language Referendums in the Usa 1980-2002
    (2023) Kazakov Hennadii; Казаков Геннадій; Fatiukha Yaroslava; Фатюха Ярослава
    The article analyzes the language issue in some American states in the last quarter of the ХХ beginning of the ХХІ century as one of the factors of national identity. The authors put forward the thesis that the factor of the English language is one of the starting points in terms of selfidentification as an American. It was determined that the majority of American states were bilingual, as a result of which it was allowed to maintain state documentation in two or three languages. At the same time, a significant part of Americans determined that the language of Americans is English, and therefore it is necessary to recognize a single official language for state document circulation, teaching in educational institutions, etc. The presented processes became especially vivid in the southern states, where there were significant centers of the non-Englishspeaking population associated with continuous migration from Latin American countries. Partial Latinization of some states in the middle of the ХХ century. led to growing protests from the English-speaking population, which sometimes took the form of xenophobia. As a result, several referendums were initiated, which demonstrated the position of society regarding the English language, its status as an identifier of the nation. The authors of the article note that although the language referendums were intended to improve the work of state bodies, to unify the documentation procedure in the states, in practice they led to their radical interpretation and the prohibition of the use of any language other than English not only at the state level, but also in everyday practices. As a result, referendum decisions have sometimes forced linguistic minorities to reconsider their own criteria for identifying themselves as citizens of the United States. In this case, the knowledge and use of the English language becomes a significant factor in the processes of American self identification.
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    Establishment of Political and Legal Activity Young Peoplein Ukraine
    (2023) Ivanii Olena Mykolaivna; Іваній Олена Миколаївна
    The article analyzes the formation of political and legal activity of youth in Ukraine. The main forms of youth political activity are characterized. Considerable attention is paid to the characteristics of the mechanisms and tools of youth participation in the formation and implementation of youth policy. On the basis of the analysis of the legal framework of youth policy, conclusions were made regarding the main trends and specifics of youth participation in political processes, which is expressed through the activities of various public organizations and movements. The purpose of the publication is to study the process of formation of political and legal activity of youth in Ukraine and the role of the state in its formation and development. The scientific novelty of the publication lies in the comprehensive analysis of political and legal activity of youth in Ukraine and its significance for political and socio-economic development. Conclusions. Youth is a dynamic component of modern Ukrainian society. Since young people have to implement the reforms initiated by the state, the state, determining the ways of formation and development of society, focuses primarily on young people, whose potential and knowledge can become a guarantee of progressive development. The political and legal activity of youth is aimed at the formation of a young person who positions himself as a responsible person who respects the rights of other people; is tolerant of political, moral, aesthetic, worldview orientations and preferences; shows a desire for such forms and directions of activity that would consolidate social efforts, make the life of every person meaningful, civilized and promising; is active in the political and legal sphere. Despite the difficult political, economic, and social situation in the country, the public structures of the youth movement are actively developing, preserving their historical traditions, roots, occupying an appropriate place in the political system of society and have now acquired a rather clear outline and certainty, which is due to the presence of support and the implementation of an active policy from the state and local authorities.
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    Archaeological Research on the Territory of the Bilsk Microregion During the Period of Martial Low
    (2023) Корост Ігор; Korost Ihor
    The article presents brief summaries of protective and rescue archaeological research conducted on cultural heritage sites in 2022 by specialists of the Communal Institution «Historical and Cultural Reserve «Bilsk» of the Poltava Regional Council. The works were carried out on the territory of the modern left bank of the Vorskla River (Kotelva territorial community, Poltava district, Poltava region). The materials highlight the results of archaeological studies of 2 multilayered settlements – Kotelva II and Staryi Karier. The article presents information about the research history of the sites selected for study in 2022. The reasons that prompted large-scale archaeological research of cultural heritage sites during the Russian-Ukrainian war era are outlined. According to the results of the field work, a preliminary description of the discovered objects and antiquities is given. On the settlement Kotelva II, during the activities of the expedition of the «Bilsk» reserve in 2022, 350 m2 were discovered. 39 objects of the Scythian period were found. The vast majority of them are household pits. In 2022, 2 excavations with a total area of 295 m2 were laid at the settlement Staryi Karier. In the first excavation, 16 household objects, a cellar of the Scythian time, were founded and investigated. A Bronze Age dwelling was also discovered. In the second excavation, 12 objects were founded. Among them are 2 dwelling and a household pits of the Final Bronze Age and Scythian time. Important attention is paid to clarifying (determining) the cultural and chronological positions of the studied settlement monuments. It has been established that the Bronze Age layering from the Kotelva II settlement can be attributed to the XIII–XII centuries B.C. During the Scythian era, the village functioned in the 6th – at the beginning of the 5th centuries B.C. Large-scale excavations made it possible to find out that the antiquities of the Scythian period from the territory of the Staryi Karier settlement can be dated to the end of the 6th – the first half of the 5th centuries B.C. Materials of the Bronze Age belong to the bearers of the Bondarikha, Ivanivka and Lebedivka cultures.
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    Settlement of the Golden Horde Period in the Middle Psel
    (2023) Osadchyi Yevhen; Осадчий Євген
    The article is devoted to the results of archaeological investigations in the territory of the middle course of the Psel in the area of the city of Sumy. As a result of the surveys, a number of settlements with materials from the Golden Horde period of the second half of the 13th - 14th centuries were discovered. They were located around a large lake, which in ancient times was part of the old river Psel and was connected to it by numerous channels. This area was rich in resources - the lake was a convenient place for farming, fishing, hunting and grazing. The ceramic material discovered in the settlements is typical for the second half of the 13th - 14th centuries and has wide analogies among the antiquities of the Dnieper Left Bank. At the same time, there is a small but distinct group of corollas with an arrow-shaped edge, which is not typical for this region. The unusual location of the settlement at a considerable distance from significant settlements was due to the changes that took place in ancient Russian society after 1239/1240. At this time, there was a gradual outflow of the population from the territory of the middle streams of the Psel and Vorskla to the Poseimya, but these territories remained important for farming in the next few centuries.
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    Ornamented Tools from Organic Materials of the Mesolithic–Neolithic Times from the Desna Basin Region
    (2023) Stupak Dmytro; Ступак Дмитро; Stupak Alina; Ступак Аліна
    The most earliest cases of using the long bones of ungulates as tools are known from the Middle Paleolithic. In the Upper Paleolithic time, the manufacture of tools from the long bones of ungulates, as well as the ornamentation of some of them, is often represented in the sites of Europe. The territory of the Desna basin, during the time of the Final Paleolithic – Neolithic, was involved in the same cultural and historical processes that took place in the northern part of Europe. But, for today, unlike many northern regions of Europe, in the territory of the Desna basin,items made of bone or horn are known only from Neolithic points. Ornamented tools are represented only by single samples.The purpose of this work is to соnsider ornamented tools made of organic materials found in the Desna basin and to publish a previously unknown sample of such tools found on the outskirts of Chernihiv, on Telyachiy island.The find from Telyachiy island is a fragment of a tool made from a long bone of a deer (Cervidae gen. etsp.). The the lack of a radiocarbon date makes it impossible to clarify its accurate dating. Based on the spread of columns of parallel strokes of ornament in the Mesolithic period and its continued existence in the Neolithic period, as well as the presence of finds of fragments of Neolithic ceramics on Telyachyi island, the found fragment of the tool, today, should be dated to the Mesolithic – Neolithic period.Thus, for the Early Holocene periods of the territory of the Desna basin, items made of organic materials are represented only by the Neolithic period. Among them, ornamented tools are rare specimens. Only for a fragment of a tool made of a long bone of a deer found on Telyachyi island, it can be assumed that it dates back to the Mesolithic. Given the meager amount of ornamented items made from organic materials from the territory of the Desna basin, this find is certainly an important source for understanding the ornamental traditions of decorating tools and the aesthetic preferences of the ancient population of the Desna basin.
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    European Skepticism and Populism under the Conditions of Transformation of the European Integration Process
    (2023) Horobets Ihor Volodymyrovych; Горобець Ігор Володимирович; Martynov Andrey; Мартинов Андрій
    The article examines the influence of the ideology and political practice of right-wing populism on European skepticism. The objective reasons for the development of European skepticism and right-wing populism are due to contradictions between national and supranational authorities. The beginning of the 21st century was marked by an acute global economic crisis, which stimulated the activation of various populist movements that take advantage of the favorable conditions of the ambivalence of many traditional political ideologies, the blurring of the demarcation lines between the «center-right» and «center-left», and the decline of classic mass political parties. A polarized political culture is quickly turning into a breeding ground for populists. The driving force of left populism was the «old left»: socialists, anarchists, Trotskyists, who entered into an alliance with protectionist trade unions. The second ideological stream consists of those who protest against the rapid disappearance of the old world and the strengthening of global competition. Anti-American sentiments are popular among left and right populism in Europe. The process of European integration in its crisis points of development gives rise to various inversion tendencies, which are aimed at opposing the formation of a more cohesive European Union as an effective model of post-national democracy. The prospects of populist left and right parties in the EU member states depend on their ability to effectively balance different social interests, offering «simple» solutions to complex systemic problems. The price of election campaigns (Internet advertising) has increased. Big sponsors allocate money to politicians to achieve their specific goals and therefore look for exactly such candidates who will push such goals. The struggle for political earnings drains time, resources and enthusiasm. As a result, citizens as a whole are polarized and become politically uncompromising. In this way, populists simply fulfill the wishes of their voters. Populism is also facilitated by the new information environment. Social media offers post truth and a variety of highly specialized topics and points of view. People get locked into their info menu. Virtual reality is killing real democracy. Social capital as a network of public institutions, the norms of reciprocity and trust that arise from them, is declining.
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    The Repressive Policy of the Soviet Government Regarding Protestant Confessions in the Period of Late
    (2023) Fedorenko Mykhailo; Федоренко Михайло
    The analysis of the research of modern Ukrainian historians studying the relationship between representatives of the Protestant denominations of Ukraine with the bodies of the People’s Commissariat of State Security (NKVD) Ministry of State Security - MSS and party and Soviet authorities in the era of late Stalinism is provided. The chronological framework of the problem is determined from 1945 to 1953, which is due to the specifics of the specified period, which consisted of some changes in the approaches and methods of work of the Soviet special services with Protestants. The historiography of the problem is considered. It was established that each of the scientists, based on the object of his research, investigated the scientific heritage of his predecessors. It was found out that researchers focused mainly on the pseudo-liberalization of relations between the Stalinist regime and Protestant denominations in the post-war years. Decorative changes of a liberal nature were determined by the course of events and the results of the Second World War. The efforts of the leadership of the USSR to create a positive image in Western democratic societies were studied. At the same time, it was established that the aforementioned "liberalization" did not stop the repressive machine of the Soviet special services against Protestants, only made it more sophisticated. Two stages of research on the specified topic were defined. The first stage 1991–2015, the opening of secret funds related to the activities of the Council for Religious Cults. The closure of the State Security Committee archives at the first stage of research did not allow researchers to fully determine the role of repressive bodies in the ongoing processes. The second stage is from 2015 to today. It is characterized by the provision in 2015 of access to the closed archive funds of the CPSU and the State Security Committee. The beginning of active use of previously unavailable documents of the state security bodies of the USSR was studied. Emphasis on methods and forms of work of the repressive apparatus in relation to Protestants was done. It has been proved that the results of the research of domestic historians regarding the repressive policy of the Soviet authorities in relation to the Protestant confessions of Ukraine during the late Stalinist era coincide in many positions.
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    Military-Administrative, Legal System and Everyday Life of the Rural Population of Chernihiv Region in 1941-1943
    (2023) Гриценко Андрій; Hrytsenko Andrii; Колієнко Анжеліка; Koliienko Anzhelika
    In the article, the authors comprehensively investigated the features of everyday life of the rural population of Chernihiv Region in 1941–1943 under the conditions of the militaryadministrative and legal system of the occupation authorities. An analysis of the created militaryadministrative and legal system was carried out on the basis of documentary sources. In the process of working on the article, a number of methods of historical research were used, in particular: the method of periodization, historical-comparative and historical-systemic methods. Attention has been drawn to the fact that during the occupation in the Chernihiv Region, the everyday life of the rural population has changed significantly. The highest manifestation of its deterioration was the burning by the occupiers of more than 60 settlements in the Chernihiv Region. Thanks to the analysis of historical sources and scientific works of a number of scientists, the authors of the article also determined the essential features of the influence of the occupation regime on the everyday life of the rural population of Chernihiv Region, analyzed their main components: the activities of field and local commandants, the deployment of repressive measures against the population with the introduced system of punishments from fines, restrictions to shootings and total control over the life and activities of the local population. This punitive policy was, in fact, revenge of the occupiers on civilians for cooperation with the local Soviet partisans. The article gives a number of examples of the destruction of local civilians by German-Nazi invaders on the territory of Chernihiv Region during 1941–1943. It was determined that the occupation regime organized by the invaders led to great human losses among the peaceful inhabitants of villages and small towns, difficult conditions of everyday ife due to the introduction by the occupiers of a terrible legal situation of the population and the deportation of people to Germany.
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    Approaches to Understanding the Causes of Military Conflicts During the Middle Bronze Age of the Dnipro-Don Measure
    (2023) Dubiaha Andrii; Дубяга Андрій
    The purpose of the article is to conduct an analysis of the possible causes of the military conflicts through the prism of the proposed approaches of V. Shnirelman. Research methodology. The research is based on the methodological principle of determinism, which assumes the existence of cause-and-effect relationships between phenomena, and universalism, which is conditioned by the consideration of human reactions in ancient times based on the behavior and reactions of modern humans. The research is based on the historicalcomparative and historical-systemic method, which allow to fully realize the set goal. Scientific novelty. In the article, the question of considering the causes of military conflicts between pastoralists of the Middle Bronze Age between the Dnieper and Don rivers is updated. Solving the problems of the causes of military conflicts lies at the basis of the study of not only the military affairs of the Donetsk-Don catacomb culture, but also such issues as the technical level of the development of crafts, social stratification and economic formation. The main achievements of scientists regarding the development of the issues of the military affairs of the catacomb cultural circle are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on the main achievements of the leading researchers of the issue. An analysis of the causes of military conflicts was carried out through the approaches accumulated by V. Shnirelman. Conclusions. Analysis of the causes of the war, based on the approaches proposed by V.O. Shnirelman, testifies to the complexity of the problem. None of the proposed approaches fully reveals the causes of military conflicts. The most consistent and thorough is the neo-evolutionist approach, which proposes to consider the causes of military conflicts from the point of view of three components: organizational-structural, causal-purpose, military-technical. Taking these components into account, we can conclude that the leading cause of military conflicts is the form of economic activity, namely nomadic herding, which requires the protection or capture of new lands for livestock.
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    Engagement District as Part of the Early Rus Novgorod-Siversky Position
    (2023) Kedun Ivan; Кедун Іван
    The article is dedicated to the part of the Novgorod-Siversky post that was located beyond the Zubrytsky stream. The purpose of the work is to determine the above-mentioned territory as a part of the post of the Old Russian city, although to this day there is no consensus on whether the studied territory belongs to the post of the city of Novgorod-Siverskyi. The most popular is its interpretation as a country estate that belonged to a wealthy Novgorodian from the north. The methodological basis of the research is based on the verification of previous versions with the materials of the latest archaeological research. The scientific novelty of the study is that a number of materials are published for the first time and fundamentally change the view on the system of positions in the ancient Russian city of Novgorod-Siverskyi. Excavations and mining of the surrounding area in recent years showed the spread of the ancient Russian cultural layer on an area of about 10 hectares, and reached the same area in his work O. Polyakov. In fact, the territory of Zaruchavya is adjacent to the post from the West. We believe that it was part of it, formed in the 12th century. To date, there is no consensus on whether the studied territory belongs to the city of Novgorod-Siverskyi. The most popular is its interpretation as a country estate that belonged to a wealthy Novgorodian from the north. However, the results of recent studies allow us to look at the problem in a new way. Further excavations and dredging of the surrounding area showed the spread of the ancient Russian cultural layer on an area of about 10 hectares, and O.M. Polyakov reached the same area in his work. In fact, the territory of Zaruchavya is adjacent to the post from the West. We believe that it was part of it, formed in the 12th century. Also, the cemetery discovered on the territory of Zaruchavye deserves special attention. Conclusions. The betrothal area was a part of the open post of Novgorod-Siverskyi, which was actively exploited in the 11th-13th centuries. It is also likely that the city cemetery was located on its territory. The time of the cemetery’s origin requires further research, however, today it can be attributed to the period after the Mongol invasion, since materials dated no later than the 14th century were found in the backfill of the graves. However, further research can significantly adjust the chronology.