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  • Документ
    Peculiarities of Commemoration of Victims of Nazi Terror in the Kharkiv Region in Wartime and Post-War Periods
    (2024) Yakovliev Vitalii; Яковлєв Віталій
    The aim of the work. The article is devoted to a comprehensive study of commemorative initiatives and building of monuments connected with the commemoration of victims of Nazi terror on the territory of the Kharkiv region. The article explains the specifics of honoring the memory of different groups of victims of Nazi terror on the territory of the Kharkiv region in wartime and in the post-war period.The methodological base consists of general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, systematic approach) along with special historical ones (historical-comparative, historical-systematic). The principles of scientificity, objectivity, and historicism are also applied.The scientific novelty of the research is defined by the fact that the author conducted for the first time a comprehensive study of commemorative initiatives of victims of Nazi terror on the territory of the Kharkiv region.Conclusions. During 1941-1945, the Kharkiv region was controlled by the German Military Administration. The German occupation regime established in the Kharkiv region led to numerous deaths among civilians and prisoners of war.The people’s initiative served as the first step in commemorating the victims of war. Further, the state assumed control over the building of monuments. Works of monumental art became the instruments for the distribution of Soviet myths about «The Great Patriotic War». The official Soviet ceremonial model of commemoration was characterized by an intrusive cult of internationalism, heroism, Soviet patriotism, and self-sacrifice. The authorities stayed indifferent to people, keeping no record of victims and depersonalizing the dead. Due to the fatal defeats of the Red Army, the Kharkiv region lost about half a million citizens, but it wasn’t highly ranked in the national narrative about the war. The state demonstrated discriminatory methods for commemoration of certain categories of the dead. Some of them were represented in the memorial space, and others were deprived of their rights. First of all, this concerned victims of mass terror –Jews, orphans, and prisoners of war. Only with the collapse of the communist regime and the independence of Ukraine these categories of victims of Nazi terror got the opportunity to convey their own vision of war to the general public.
  • Документ
    Foreign Prisoners of War in Kyiv Region In 1943-1954 According to the Documents of Ukrainian Archives
    (2024) Chekysh Nazar Viktorovych; Чекиш Назар Вікторович
    The aim of the article is the attribution and characterization of a range of unpublished sources from the archives of Ukraine, which contain information about the situation of prisoners of war of Germany and its allies in Soviet camps on the territory of Kyiv and Kyiv region in 1943–1954. The research methodology is defined by the principles of scientificity, historicism, objectivity and systematicity. The author used the methods of source studies, including archival heuristics, analysis and synthesis of documentary sources. The scientific novelty is in determining the typological and specific composition, content and informational potential of an unpublished array of documents on the history of the regional link of Soviet military captivity in Kyiv region, which are stored in the archives of Ukraine.Conclusions. The identified and systematized array of unpublished sources on the history of the regional branch of the Soviet military captivity in the Kyiv region in 1943–1954 are represented by the directive documents of the top party leadership of the Ukrainian SSR, the government of the republic, regulatory and administrative orders of the NKVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs), records of the Ukrainian Military Intelligence Service, special camps and hospitals, documents of the management entities that used the labour of prisoners of war, the decisions of local authorities on the allocation of buildings and land for the placement of regime facilities and the burial of dead prisoners.Documents that differ in content and are unequal in the degree of informativeness characterize the general directions of the Soviet policy in the field of military prisoners at the final stage of the Second World War and in the post-war period, and on the example of a specific region reflect the steps taken by the authorities aimed at its practical implementation. The content of the studied documents allows us: to identify the general features of the Soviet military captivity system and the peculiarities of its regional branch in the Kyiv region, in particular in the context of the organization, functioning and liquidation of camps and special hospitals for prisoners of war in 1943–1954; to find out the situation of foreign prisoners in the camps of Kyiv and the region, the peculiarities of the regime of detention, material, household, food provision and treatment, etc.
  • Документ
    The Newspaper «Kirovohradska Pravda» as a Mouthpiece of Soviet Atheist Propaganda in 1954–1965
    (2024) Tatarchenko Oleksandr Borysovych; Татарченко Олександр Борисович
    Goal of the study. The goal of the article is to conduct a comprehensive study of atheistic publications in Kirovohradska Pravda during the period of intensification of anti-religious policies in the USSR in 1954-1965.Methodology. The main methods used to prepare this publication were: problematic and chronological, analysis and synthesis, descriptive and statistical.Scientific novelty. The article is the first to examine the content of publications on atheistic topics in the Kirovohrad Regional and City Committees of the CP(B)U and the Regional Council of Workers’ Pravda, Kirovohradska Pravda. The author establishes how the adoption of the resolution "On major shortcomings in scientific and atheistic propaganda and measures to improve it" by the CPBU Central Committee on July7, 1954 affected the topics of anti-religious publications published in Kirovohradska Pravda in 1954–1965. The main directions of atheist propaganda are identified and analysed.In particular, there were publications that criticised party, state and public organisations for the low level of propaganda work among the population of the region. There have always been calls to intensify atheist propaganda and make it more qualitative. A significant number of articles were devoted to criticising religion as a phenomenon. Articles promoting a materialistic worldview were periodically published. Increased administrative pressure on clergymen in the late 1950s was reflected in the fact that Kirovohradska Pravda published articles in which they explained why they had renounced their ministry and apologised for their preaching activities.Conclusions. During the period of intensification of anti-religious policy in the USSR in 1954–1965, Kirovohradska Pravda served as a mouthpiece of atheist propaganda in the Kirovohrad region of the Ukrainian SSR. Its contents reflected the main directions of atheist propaganda. However, as some publications have shown, the goal of atheisation of the population of Kirovohrad oblast was not achieved
  • Документ
    Stages of Memory Policy Implementation in Ukraine (1991-2023)
    (2024) Lytvynovska Yuliia Anatoliivna; Литвиновська Юлія Анатоліївна
    The aim of this article is to analyse and highlight the peculiarities of the process of forming national memory in Ukraine in 1991–2023. To clarify the peculiarities, place and role of historical memory in the policy of the presidents of independent Ukraine in the context of memory policy formation, describing the main trends in its development, namely the measures implemented at the legislative, national and socio-cultural levels. The novelty of this article is a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the memory policy at each of the identified stages, reflecting the transformations that took place at differentlevels.Conclusions. The article identifies the main stages of the implementation of memory policy in independent Ukraine (1991–1994, 1994–2004, 2005–2010, 2010–2013, 2014–2019, and from 2019 to the present). The main changes in the implementation of memory policy by each president of independent Ukraine are described. Sources and information from periodicals, websites of institutions, including the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, legislative documents, namely presidential decrees and decisions of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as works of previous researchers of memory policy in Ukraine, who published a number of works on each period, are analysed. It is determined that each stage of the implementation of memory policy in the country was marked by changes in the state policy. The first years of independence are characterised by the nationalisation of memory, with a clear separation of the Ukrainian people’s history from the Sovietone. The period of 1994–2004 is characterised by a combination of the national concept and Soviet remnants; from 2005 to 2010, there was an active development of national history and culture, popularisation and active research of previously silenced topics. The period of 2010–2013 was a departure from the national vector of memory policy, but since 2014 and until now, the state memory policy has been characterised by decommunisation, popularisation and development of national history and culture, including in the context of the information war with Russia
  • Документ
    Why are Books Crossing Oceans? To the History of the Book “Ukraine Cries” by Alexie Pelypenko,1937-2015
    (2024) Malshyna Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Мальшина Катерина Володимирівна; Volobuiev Vladyslav Vladyslavovych; Волобуєв Владислав Владиславович
    AbstractThe aim of the research. The article deals with the paths of A.Pelypenko’s book ‘Ukraine Cries’ (1937) to readers, examines the issues of Bolshevism in the Slovenian cultural and political press at the end of the 1930s, finds out the awareness of Slovenians about the events in Ukraine and the Bolshevist terror against the Ukrainian population in the 1920s–30s, the impact of the content of this book on Slovenian society through clarifying the details of the biography of Father A.Pelypenko, expanding knowledge about the fate of Ukrainian immigrants (using the example of a Ukrainian clergyman’s biography) and the interaction of the Ukrainian and Slovenian diasporas in Argentina.Scientific novelty of the research. Neither Pelypenko’s writing activities nor his biography have yet become the subject of research in Ukraine.Conclusions. At the end of the 1930s, the Bolshevist terror was the first topic of the cultural and political press in Slovenia. The book ‘Ukraine cries’ by the Ukrainian clergyman Alexius Pelypenko (1893-1983), published first in Germamy in 1937, then in Slovenia in 1939-1940, gained the greatest resonance. The book enriched Slovenes’ awareness of events in Ukraine with new information and details. The content of the book was so significant that it crossed the Atlantic three times on its way to the people: it went from Germany to Slovenia, then to the USA, and again to Slovenia, and from there to Argentina, and again to Slovenia. This is an eyewitness account of real events in the village of Volovodivka during the famine artificially created by the Bolsheviks in Ukraine in 1921-1923, and it describes part of the author’s biography in a slightly modified form. Fate took Father Pelypenko first to the fronts of the First World War, then to his native Podillia, and from there – to the West of Ukraine, Poland, Germany, and Argentina. The familiarity of Slovenes with this book may have helped Pelipenko in Argentina, where he received the support of the Slovene priest in emigration, Jozef Kastelic (1888-1940). The reciprocity of Slovenian and Ukrainian diasporas in Argentina can be traced through their neighboring settlements in Buenos Aires. There was much in common in the spiritual life of immigrants to Argentina as well. Pelypenko is the authorof 26 books and numerous articles, all of which affect Ukrainian people and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church under the yoke of communism to some extent. Interest in the events and Bolshevist terror in Ukraine in the world did not weaken during the Cold War and later, especially after the beginning of Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014, which in February 2022 resulted in a full-scale war. Pelypenko’s book shows that Russia’s policy towards Ukraine has not changed in the 21stcentury.
  • Документ
    The Ideological Basis of Using the Press as a Component of Communist Propaganda in the USSR
    (2024) Mozghovyi Oleksii; Мозговий Олексій
    The article analyzes the ideological basis of the use of the press as a component of communist Soviet propaganda. In the communist ideology that was founded by Karl Marx, the press played a significant role as a guide of Marxist ideas. Vladimir Lenin developed the ideas of Marx, and created the theoretical basis for the use of the centralized press system by the Soviet state apparatus for effective dissemination of communist propaganda.The aim of the article is to determine the main ideological aspects of Marxism and Leninism regarding the use of the press as a tool of communist propaganda during the existence of the USSR in order to spread the ideas and goals of communist ideology.The scientific novelty is that the main ideological foundations of the use of the press in the system of Soviet propaganda were determined based on the analysis and comparison of the ideas of Marx and Lenin. Conclusions. As a result of the conducted analysis, it was established that in his views, Marx paid considerable attention to the issue of the press. He saw the press as an important element in the development of the labor movement, which, as a result, was to lead to the communist revolution. Due to the fact that he considered the revolution inevitable, and propaganda, in such a case, superfluous, he considered the press precisely as a platform for the spread of communist ideas, and not as an element of the propaganda system.Lenin developed Marx’s ideas about the press, but he was convinced of the need to conduct the revolution first. And, only after that, he saw it necessary to develop communist attitudes among workers. He considered it possible only with the help of propaganda. That is why he described the press as a centralized, state-subordinated system that works exclusively in the interests of the party and communist ideology.
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    Taxation of the Orthodox Clergy of Ukraine in the Mid-1940s –1980s
    (2024) Olitskyi Viacheslav Oleksandrovych; Оліцький В'ячеслав Олександрович
    The purpose of the research is to analyze the Soviet tax legislation and determine the practice of taxing the Orthodox clergy of Ukraine, establishing other payments paid by the clergy in the mid-1940s – 1980s. The research methodology is based on the use of general scientific and special historical research methods, including problem-chronological, historical-comparative, typological, diachronic, etc. Scientific novelty. The Soviet tax legislation in the field of taxation of the Orthodox clergy is analyzed. It was established that, in addition to the extremely high income tax, the clergy had to make a number of other payments. The peculiarities of taxation of the Orthodox clergy in Ukraine have been clarified. The attitude of clergymen to the tax system, attempts to challenge and transform it are analyzed. Conclusions. Taxation of the Orthodox clergy in the mid-1940s – 1980s was one of the ways to put pressure on them to stop religious activities. In general, the tax policy in relation to the Orthodox clergy in Ukraine was determined by general Soviet trends, although in some cases it had its own peculiarities. In the 1940s, the amount of individual taxes for the Orthodox clergy of the Ukrainian SSR was higher than in other republics of the USSR. Increased taxation was used as one of the ways to fight against the Greek Catholic clergy, who refused to convert to the Russian Orthodox Church. The system of taxation of the Orthodox clergy remained discriminatory throughout the studied period. One of the most unfair was the income tax, which reached 81%. Often, the amount of tax payments was deliberately overestimated by employees of financial departments. As a result of such a system, the Orthodox clergy, especially in rural areas, was oftenin a very difficult situation, actually on the verge of survival. Having found themselves in a similar situation, priests were forced to change parishes, older clergy – to go abroad. This further contributed to the closing of churches in parishes that remained without priests.
  • Документ
    Factors of Influence on the Formation of B.Grinchenko as a Political Actor
    (2024) Reznik Maksym; Резнік Максим
    The aim of this article is to substantiate the factors influencing the formation of B.Grinchenko as a political figure and the formation of his political views and preferences. The research methodology is represented by a set of methods and approaches used in the process of working on the material: analysis, logical generalization, systematization, comparison, as well as historical and historical-biographical approaches.The article summarizes and systematizes the influencing factors on the development of B.Grinchenko as a political figure, on the formation of his political views. The outlined factors are divided into internal and external. It is substantiated that the formation of the personality of Boris Grinchenko as a political figure was influenced by many factors, which in general can be divided into two separate groups: internal and external. Internal factors are factors that are formed largely under the influence of character traits and individual moral qualities of the actor. They were singled out in the process of working out the actor’s biography. External factors are, on the contrary, factors that do not depend on Boris Grinchenko’s character traits and were formed mostly by the influence of the social processes of that time. Such factors are substantiated throughthe prism of the actor’s political achievements, which is seen as a completely rational approach.The object of the study is the process of formation of B.Grinchenko as a political figure. The subject is the political activity of B.Grinchenko in the context of the formation of his views and worldview. The scientific novelty of the article consists in substantiating the factors influencing the formation of B.Grinchenko’s political views and the process of his formation as a politician. As a direction of further research, it is appropriate to highlight the relevance of determining the influence of individual representatives of the Ukrainian elite of that time on the formation of the actor’s worldview.
  • Документ
    The Influence of the Consequences of War Crimes on the European Integration of the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia
    (2024) Shymkevych Kateryna; Шимкевич Катерина
    The aim of the article is to study the impact of war crimes committed in the 1990s and early 2000s on the territory of the republics of former Yugoslavia on the European integration processes and aspirations of these states. Factors that directly influence the European integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia are analyzed. It was noted that Slovenia did not have similar problems, so its European integration was not related to solving the problem of war crimes. The author also emphasizes that this issue was unimportant in North Macedonia. Therefore, it had no impact on European integration.The scientific novelty of this investigation consists of an attempt to comprehensively highlight the interdependence of the consequences of war crimes and the aspirations of the post-Yugoslav countries to become members of the European Union. The article states that this topic requires a separate historiographical study since no works in Ukrainian and foreign science would reveal various aspects of the topic.The conclusions emphasize that for Croatia, the problem of settling war crimes and their consequences was one of the critical problems for joining the EU. European integration began to progress only after the state’s political leadership changed and started to develop relevant legislation and actively cooperate with the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.The author emphasizes that the problem of war crimes is quite acute for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Every year, the European Commission underlines that the country’s leadership must change its approach to solving such problems. However, the dynamics of conviction of war criminals, as well as the investigation of human rights violations, remain low. It does not directlyimpact the European integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina since the country received candidate status only in 2022.As the author notes, Serbia and Montenegro are characterized by ignoring the problem of war crimes, their consequences, and the punishment of the guilty. The political leadership of both countries is taking purely demonstrative steps that would meet the requirements of the European Commission.
  • Документ
    Policy of the Soviet Government in the Question of Fighting Children’s homelessness in the 1920’s - mid-1930’s:Organizational and Legal Basis
    (2024) Sokyrska Vladlena Volodymyrivna; Сокирська Владилена Володимирівна; Крупеня Ірина Миколаївна; Krupenia Iryna Mykolaivna
    The aim of the work: to investigate the measures and results of the state’s activities to overcome child homelessness in the 1920s – 1930s, to reveal the practical activities of the joint efforts of the state and the public in solving this issue. The research methodology was made up of general scientific principles of historicism, objectivity and systematicity, and also used general scientific and special research methods. The application of the principle of objectivity made it possible to consider the subject of research taking into account the objective laws that determined the processes of socio-economic development of Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s. The principle of historicism made it possible to comprehensively analyze the problem chosen for research in its dynamics.The scientific novelty is represented by the analysis of the main forms, principles, most essential features and peculiarities of the functioning of the system of state assistance to children, measures to prevent the further increase in the level of child homelessness and crime, and their author’s periodization was carried out.Conclusions. The situation that led to an increase in the number of homeless children in the 1920s and 1930s required the Soviet authorities to organize relevant state structures and take effective measures of a practical nature. In the Ukrainian SSR, issues of childhood protection and overcoming child homelessness were dealt with by specialized People’s Commissariats of Education, Health Care, and Social Protection, as well as state commissions and public organizations. The rapid growth of child homelessness discredited and called into question the ideological principles of the Soviet government in the eyes of the population of the republics and the international community, forcing them to look for a way out of this situation. The elimination of the problem was hampered by the lack of a comprehensive approach, which would allow covering the entire range of tasks. The low organizational level of the low-level government apparatus did not lead to finding a proper and quick solution to the problem. These and other issues demonstrated the weakness of the Soviet state system, hindered the timely resolution of assigned tasks, which affected the solution to the problem of homelessness in general.
  • Документ
    Historical and Local Lore Activity of Stepan Havrylovych Baran-Butovych (1877-1944)
    (2024) Trykashnyi Yaroslav; Трикашний Ярослав
    The article is dedicated to the Ukrainian historian, archaeologist, local historian and teacher S.H.Baran-Butovych. The aim of the article: on the basis of available sources and historiographical materials, to characterize the selfless activity of the scientist, teacher and public figure S.H.Baran-Butovych in the direction of local history and tourism work. The relevance of the research is determined by the activation of local lore studies in the 21stcentury. A detailed study of the history of the regions and their prominent figures contributes to the awakening of national self-awareness of Ukrainian people, their historical memory, and the consolidation of the nation. In this context, the significance of the historical and local history activity of S.H.Baran-Butovych for Chernihiv Oblast was studied, as well as his contribution to the study of the history of Ukraine.Scientific novelty: the article presents the activities of S.H.Baran-Butovych in certain periods of his life, his scientific works of local history are characterized. These are thematic articles in the newspapers Ukrainian Polissya (Ukrainian Courier) and the studio that played an important role in the development of local history – ‘Chernihiv as an object of historical and local history excursions’ (1931). Information is provided about the trials of the scientist’s fate in the 1930s of the 20thcentury.The methodological basis of the work is based on the biographical method, using the principles of scientific objectivism, historicism, and systematicity with the use of general scientific methods of synthesis, analysis, and generalization.Conclusions. The article presents the historical and local history activities of S.H.Baran-Butovych, his participation in the creation of the Chernihiv excursion bureau is highlighted, hisworks are analyzed and their importance for the development of local history in the Chernihiv region is determined.Activities of S.H.Barana-Butovych contributed to further development of local history and tourism industry of Chernihiv, and his articles in newspapers, as well as the work ‘Chernihiv as an object of historical and local history excursions’ contributed to drawing attention to the historical past of Ukraine, in particular, Chernihiv Oblast, and were also important sources of formation of national values, consciousness and worldview.
  • Документ
    The History of the Establishment and Development of Preventive Measures in the Form of Custody on Ukrainian Lands (ХІІІ– Beginning Of ХХ Century)
    (2024) Shcherbak Svitlana Volodymyrivna; Щербак Світлана Володимирівна; Lukashenko Stanislav; Лукашенко Станіслав
    The article examines the genesis of preventive measures in the form of custody in criminal proceedings on the territory of modern Ukraine. Issues of the origin and development of detention in criminal justice were considered, which existed in Ukrainian lands during the long-term historical development of Ukrainian statehood with a time frame from the XIIIcentury to Soviet times.The results of the analysis of the origin and evolution of custody in the system of preventive measures in the criminal process on the territory of modern Ukraine during the periods of Kyivan Rus, Cossacks, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires in the historical aspect are presented.It has been proven that the emergence of a preventive measure in the form of custody took place in the kniaz period and found its consolidation in ‘Russkaya Pravda’, when a person could be arrested to be brought to court (of the kniaz). The preventive measure in the form of custody was developed in the tsarist period, when it was about being placed in prison, and custody reached its greatest development in the imperial period, in the Statute of Criminal Justice of 1864. Despite itsprogressiveness, detention in custody violated the rights of convicted persons, and was also characterized by particular severity and repressiveness, because this preventive measure caused suffering to people, humiliated human dignity and protected the political regime.
  • Документ
    Activities of Boris Hmyrya During the Second World War
    (2024) Berezhna Svitlana Viktorivna; Бережна Світлана Вікторівна; Diakova Olena; Дьякова Олена
    The work’s aim is to highlight Boris Romanovych Hmyria’s life during the Second World War.The methodological basis of the work are the principles of historicism, objectivity and systematicity. The article is based on philosophical and special scientific methods of the socio-humanitarian sphere of scientific knowledge.The scientific novelty consists in the study of the activities of B.Hmyria during the Second World War. The singer’s biography of 1939-1945 is recreated, and important events that happened in his life at that time and in the post-war period are determined.Conclusions. The life of Boris Romanovych Hmyria during the Second World War can be divided into three stages: before the Nazi occupation (1.09.1939–22.10.1941), during the Nazi occupation (24.10.1941–25.03.1944) and after the Nazi occupation (25.03.1944–2.09.1945). All three stages and post-war life unite performances on stage, improvement of creative potential, and love of the public. But there are peculiarities. At the beginning of the war, B.Hmyria’s career was beginning and was successful, as evidenced by the award of Honored Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1941. The second stage is marked by the fact that the singer was a civilian prisoner (as told to him by the head of the Poltava Opera Z.Wolfer) and was forced to perform where he was ordered. This period negatively affected the future life of the man. After the liberation of Ukraine from the German occupiers, the attitude of some of the colleagues towards Boris Romanovych was negative. Despite the support of the Soviet government and the boundless love of the public, persecution in the theatre led to the premature death of the artist.It should be noted that the biography of B.Hmyria was typical for actors who survived the Nazi occupation, and differed only in that he did not survive the arrest and prison term, like many others. He had the opportunity to emigrate to the West, but his boundless love for Ukraine forced him to stay in his native land.
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    Sectoral Specificity of Mono-Profile Cities in Donbas in 1940–1980s:Political and Strategic Aspect of Formation
    (2024) Bohunenko Valerii Oleksandrovych; Богуненко Валерій Олександрович
    The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the main features of the political strategy, determine the formation of the sectoral specificity of the industrial base of the monotowns of Donbas in the 1940s-1980s. The methodology of the study is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity, integrity and systemic character. The methods used are: retrospective, problematic-chronological, historical-genetic, historical-typological ones. The novelty of the study lies in the attempt to identify and characterize the main features of the political strategy of economic development, which led to the formation of the sectoral specificity of production of city-forming importance in Donbas in the 1940s-1980s period. Conclusions. The formation of the sectoral specificity of the Donbas mono-profile cities from the mid-1940s to the late 1980s period was the result of the low level of political and strategic thinking of the country’s party and government leadership in organizing industrial and urbanization processes. As in the previous period (the years of forced industrialization in the 1920s-1930s), the country long-term economic development was based on an extensive model. The main priorities were to ensure the country’s defense capability and rapidly demonstrate the benefits of socialist planned economy. This led to increasing use of raw materials from Donbas, construction of numerous city-forming enterprises in the region, mainly in the coal industry, as well as in the fire-resistant, chemical ones. During the period under study, the number of mono-profile cities in the region doubled, compared to the previous one: out of a total of eighty-seven cities in Donbas at the end of the Soviet Union period, about 80% were mono-profile. The genesis of the majority of single-industry cities in this period is associated with the “economic breakthrough” of the mid-1950s - mid-1960s period, planned to quickly reach the levels of highly developed countries. The attempts to improve the economic development strategy and move away from the extensive economic model by the party and government leadership in the second half of the 1960s and at the late stage of the USSR’s existence period were not consistent and effective. There was neither diversification nor intensification of city-forming production in the mono-profile cities of Donbas. The narrow sectoral specificity determined negative scenarios for the development of these cities in the following decades. They are mainly related to the reduction of city-forming production due to the depletion of the region’s resource potential, structural and economic changes. Developing new strategies for the economic development of the country and the regions, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of formation of the industrial and urban sphere of Donbas, to answer fundamental questions, connected to the reasonability of rebuilding and the possibility of re-profiling such cities
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    Participation of the PRC in the Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Other Countries of the Central Asia in 1990-2016: Foreign Policy and Economic Factors
    (2023) Подрєз Юлія Вікторівна; Podriez Yuliia Viktorivna
    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the military- political and economic situation in the world had changed radically. The Berlin Wall fell ,The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) stopped its existence, the socialist bloc of countries in Europe and the USSR collapsed. The world was no more bipolar. The PRC, led by the CCP, despite the ruling Communist Party ideology, strived to take advantage of these changes. China aimed to open for itself foreign markets, including energy resources. PRC’s rejection from complete isolationism, the initial cessation of confrontation with the United States and countries of the West, and then cessation of the struggle with the USSR and its allies for leadership in building a world socialist system, allowed Chinese government not only to save huge resources, including energy, which went to maintenance of a huge army and ambitious military-political projects, by directing them in a peaceful direction, but also by starting the introduction of market reforms, what changed China’s image in the world from a negative to a positive one. Since the formation on the territory of the former Soviet Central Asia of the independent states of Central Asia – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan – hydrocarbon resources of the region acquired key importance in the foreign policy of the new countries. China formed the priorities of its foreign energy policy in relation to Central Asia gradually. Energy expansion of Beijing was preceded by an active trade and economic policy, the results of which created preconditions for the foreign policy refocusing of the countries of the region. Pipelines became an important element of energy policy, proposed and implemented by Beijing for the supply of hydrocarbon resources in Chinese direction. Beijing achieves access to new oil and gas deposits, expecting due to their development, to realize promising plans to increase the exports volume of hydrocarbon raw materials from Central Asia countries.
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    Concepts of Regional Association of Central and Eastern European Countries
    (2023) Михтуненко Вікторія Вікторівна; Mykhtunenko Viktoriia Viktorivna
    At the current stage, there is no doubt about the role of the “Three Seas” initiative in the regional schedule. However, it is worth noting that one of the impetuses for its actualization was the world confrontation that arose after Russia’s encroachments on the territory of Ukraine (the annexation of Crimea and the instigation of the war in the East of Ukraine). Today, this idea of unification of states in the space from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas, as it was at its inception, is actively supported by the USA. Over the past eight years, the attitude towards this program on the part of Germany and the European Union has also changed in a positive direction. In fact, from Poland’s attempt to realize its historical Central European ambitions, the Three Seas initiative was transformed into a prototype of the new Eastern Europe as an integral part of the transatlantic community. The interest of modern Polish politicians in the concept of “Mizhmorya” is a continuation of the tradition and political thought of Józef Piłsudski. First of all, the concept of “Mizhmorya” is closely related to his view of Poland’s foreign policy in the interwar period. However, its origins go back to the beginning of the 20th century, when there were discussions about Poland’s borders and its role in Europe after it gained independence. The main question concerned Poland’s ability to effectively resist the expansion of neighboring states – Germany and Russia. The actualization of the “Mizhmorya” concept at the current stage and the transformation of the latter into the “Three Seas” initiative began after the Russian aggression in Ukraine in 2014. In its current version, the concept includes the southern and eastern vectors of integration. This is a qualitative change, since for many centuries Poland’s foreign policy was formed on the East-West axis, paying much less attention to the North-South axis. It is worth noting that the concept of “Mizhmorya”, which in its current version has turned into “Three Seas”, is not considered as an alternative for membership in the EU and NATO. At the current stage, it does not have an independent character, complementing the generally pro-Western orientation of Poland and its other participants. In connection with the involvement of 12 countries in the “Three Seas Initiative” and the active role of Croatia, Romania and other states in it, it is losing connection with the original concept of the “Midsea”. It is becoming a format of regional cooperation within the EU, but it has quite strong foundations. Its success also depends on external factors: West-Russia relations, US activity in Central and Eastern Europe, and the difficult-to-predict future of the European Union. One can debate for a long time about the functionality and competitiveness of the new association in relation to other numerous regional entities, but one thing remains important: the implementation of the “Three Seas” initiative will start the process of building the energy independence of the countries of the Eastern European region from Russia. At the summit on June 20, 2022, the countries of the “Three Seas” initiative granted Ukraine the special status of a participating partner of the association. It is worth noting that Ukraine’s membership in “Trimory” is part of our country’s path to membership in the European Union. The concept envisages the development of world trade through the creation of new European logistics corridors, therefore it is important for Ukraine to become one of the transitors along these routes. Several areas of Ukraine’s cooperation with the participating countries of the “Three Seas” should be highlighted: the creation of the trans-European highway Via Carpathia, where Ukraine will play the role of an important logistics center; energy cooperation, Ukraine has one of the largest gas storages in the region and, using the capabilities of the Poland-Slovakia, PolandUkraine interconnectors, it is possible to meet the needs of all countries of the Three Seas; the export of Ukrainian electricity can help the countries of the “Three Seas” to become independent from the energy pressure of the Russian Federation; infrastructure and digitalization (countries should work on expanding checkpoints at the borders of Ukraine). Our state can support many infrastructure projects in the field of digitization and strengthen regional digital connections. So, the “Three Seas” initiative is Ukraine’s perspective to take a place on the European market and completely abandon logistical ties with the occupying country.
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    The Oslo Agreements and the 2000 Camp David Summit: the Attempt Of US President B. Clinton and his Administration to Settle the Arab-Israeli Соnflict Peacefully in 1993-2001
    (2023) Моцак Світлана Іванівна; Motsak Svitlana Ivanivna; Токаренко Ігор; Tokarenko Ihor
    The article analyzes the Oslo 1 and Oslo 2 agreements, the 2000 summit in Camp David as attempts to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict with the direct participation of U.S. President Bill Clinton and his administration in 1993–2001. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the content of the agreements and the positions of the parties regarding the peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The main structural elements of the Oslo 1 and Oslo 2 agreements have been identified. The opinions of the leaders of Israel and Palestine regarding the possibility of a complete settlement of the conflict are analyzed. US President Bill Clinton’s views on the process of settling the Arab-Israeli conflict during the Camp David summit are provided. The principled positions of the leader of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat regarding Jerusalem and the creation of an independent Palestine are highlighted. The purpose of the research is to analyze the Oslo 1, Oslo 2 agreements and the 2000 Camp David summit as an attempt by U.S. President B. Clinton and his administration to implement the process of peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The methodological basis of the research was the principles of objectivity, historicism and systematicity with the use of general scientific research methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization of information. The scientific novelty of the publication consists in a comprehensive analysis of the peace talks Oslo 1, Oslo 2 and the summit in Camp David in 2000, as the attempts of U.S. President B. Clinton and his administration at the negotiating table to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1993– 2001. Conclusions. The agreements Oslo 1, Oslo 2 and the summit in Camp David in 2000 became a real breakthrough in relations between Israel and Palestine, for the first time in the last decades of the 20th century there were real reasons to believe that the Arab-Israeli conflict would still be possible resolve peacefully. However, despite all attempts, the Oslo-1, Oslo-2 and the 2000 Camp David summit did not finally resolve the conflict in the Middle East. In the societies of both states, new radical options for resolving the conflict were maturing, which eventually led to a new intifada of the Palestinian people.
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    German-Ukrainian Cooperation: Activities of the Fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future”
    (2023) Концур Вікторія; Kontsur Viktoriia; Концур Микола; Kontsur Mykola
    The article examines the transformation of the activities of the Fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future” (germ. “Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft”) of the Federal Republic of Germany and German-Ukrainian cooperation in the cultural and educational sphere. The experience of interaction between former enemies during the Second World War is considered in relation to extremely painful issues of historical memory in Ukraine and Germany in order to overcome historical traumas. During the Second World War, Ukraine was one of the main regions for the export of Ostarbeiters to Nazi Germany. For a long time, a large proportion of forced laborers were not subject to the German compensation law. Only at the end of the 20th century, the German and international public raised the issue of payments to former forced laborers. In 1998, the Bundestag decided to create a fund to pay compensation with financial participation from German industry. The fund paid one-time compensation primarily to former concentration camp prisoners and deported civilian workers from Central and Eastern Europe. Out of the total amount of compensation of 4.4 billion euros, Ukraine received more than 400 million euros. In 2010, the payments were completed, but the fund continued and expanded its activities. Today, the fund supports the implementation of international projects aimed at strengthening partnership and cooperation between Germany and countries that suffered from the consequences of National Socialism. The fund’s annual reports show that Ukraine is the undisputed leader among the partner countries in the implementation of these projects. Such fruitful cooperation became possible thanks to the activities of Ukrainian organizations, unions and funds regarding comprehensive support and assistance from the state and society to the victims of Nazism. The active partners of the German fund “Memory, Responsibility and Future” are the Ukrainian Union of Prisoners-Victims of Nazism and the Ukrainian Cultural Fund. Among the products of this international cooperation are an online archive and an online educational platform that can be effectively used for scientific and educational purposes. Thus, the fund became a kind of expression of the political and moral responsibility of the German state for the damages caused by the National Socialist regime, and a cultural and educational bridge between the former irreconcilable enemies.
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    Ecological Modernization of the European Union Economy in Condition of Political and Financial Limits
    (2023) Horobets Ihor Volodymyrovych; Горобець Ігор Володимирович; Martynov Andrey; Мартинов Андрій
    Тhe history of mankind from a material point of view is a change in technological systems, which determined the forms of organization of economic life. History has recorded many phase crises associated with the transition from one technological mode to another. The key objectives of the EU environmental policy are: combating climate change, ensuring biodiversity, limiting the negative impact of production on human health and quality of life, rational use of natural resources, waste recycling. Environmental policy is a joint competence of the Member States and the EU bodies. The goals of the EU’s common agricultural policy are: increasing agricultural productivity, ensuring social protection of farmers, stabilizing agricultural markets, food security, maintaining reasonable consumer prices for agricultural goods, and providing export subsidies. EU countries’ strategies for the energy sector are different. France remains a supporter of nuclear energy. Germany is closing down nuclear power plants, necessitating an increase in energy production from thermal power plants and alternative energy sources. Achieving new environmental standards in industry raises questions of socio-political stability, as there is a risk of job losses in the old industrial sectors and the slow creation of new jobs. Such disparities can negatively affect the political support of "green" environmental political parties, especially in the countries of "old" Europe. The political positions of the "greens" in the countries of the "new" Europe are less influential. This fact complicates the formation of a joint environmental group of influence in the EU in order to exert political pressure to implement environmental modernization of the economy. That is, the success of the ecological modernization of the EU economy systematically depends on the internal capacity of elites and European societies to implement this course and on the favorable balance of power in a globalized world.
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    The Priorities of Mexico’s Foreign Policy at the Beginning of 21 Century: Overview of Amlo Administration
    (СумДПУ імені А. С. Макаренка, 2023) Bohdanova Tetiana; Богданова Тетяна; Тихоненко Ірина; Tykhonenko Iryna
    The article attempts to analyze the priorities of Mexico’s foreign policy at the beginning of the XXI century with an emphasis on reviewing the foreign policy strategy of the administration of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO). The methodological basis of the study is a comparative analysis of Mexico’s foreign policy priorities. Currently, Mexico is the leading state in Latin America, which tries to implement an autonomous foreign policy, being involved in all international affairs. In the XXI century Mexico moved away from the policy of isolationism in accordance with the Estrada doctrine and began to be guided by the Castañeda doctrine  to conduct an active foreign policy both at the regional and global levels of the international system. Therefore, the following goals of Mexico’s foreign policy strategy can be defined: support of regional autonomy and a balanced policy in the international arena, issues of social and economic development of the state, relations with the U.S. Despite the ambitious goals of Mexican foreign policy, the state has a number of internal problems that undoubtedly affect its positioning in the world. It is worth noting that the administration of the previous President Peña Nieta emphasized the positioning of Mexico as an active player in the international arena. In turn, the López Obrador administration, being populist, puts domestic politics as the primary goal of its activities  following the principle “the best foreign policy is a good domestic policy”. Therefore, Mexican priorities under the AMLO administration are the development of trade and economic cooperation with Central American states, relations with the United States (in particular, within the framework of the USMCA and the reduction of migration flows), as well as non-interference in global issues of international politics. It should be noted that such non-interference is quite controversial on the example of the Russian-Ukrainian war  neutrality in condemning Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and the existing pro-Russian position of the leading political elites.