Особливості утворення евфемізмів в американському політичному кінодискурсі

У статті досліджено способи утворення евфемізмів в американському політичному кінодискурсі (на матеріалі американських політичних серіалів). Обґрунтовано актуальність наукової розвідки та уточнено поняття політичного кінодискурсу. Проаналізовано публікації з проблематики дослідження та уточнено класифікацію шляхів досягнення евфемістичного ефекту в англійській мові, що уможливило ідентифікувати механізми евфемізації в американському політичному кінодискурсі.
The article focuses on the ways of formation of euphemisms in American political discourse on the material of American political TV series. The relevance of the research has been justified and the notion of political film discourse has been specified. Publications concerning the main topic of our research were analyzed and the classification of the ways of formation of euphemisms in English was clarified. This contributed to identification of the mechanisms of euphemization in the American political film discourse. Special attention was drawn to the semantic means which is determined by scientists as the most productive way of euphemism formation. Eleven thematic groups of euphemisms which are widely used by politicians and public figures in political sessions, debates, political speeches, interviews and press-conferences were singled out. The reasons that made politicians use euphemisms characterized by a neutral connotation were also the focus of our investigation. The most efficient ways of euphemism formation in American political film discourse were identified. They are semantic shift, represented by metaphor, meiosis and generalization; periphrasis; word formation; borrowings and the usage of pronouns to denote certain phenomena that are undesirable or seem unpleasant to the speaker. We have observed tendencies of the usage of euphemisms and identified quantitative indicators of representing the ways to create euphemistic effect in the studied material. It was found out, that the speaker uses metaphor and meiosis to soften the refusal or to hide the genuine financial state of a person. It was revealed that generalization helps avoid unpleasant details concerning health condition and alcohol dependency of communicators. Periphrasis was found to prevent conflicts and help to eliminate possible tensions that may occur in the situation of leaving work place or when discussing delicate topics. Abbreviation was considered as a mechanism of euphemization that implements health confidentiality. Borrowings and the usage of indefinite pronouns were studied as the ways of veiling of meaning of the statement in American political film discourse.
Ключові слова
дискурсологія, евфемізм, американський політичний кінодискур, спосіб утворення, механізм евфемізації, euphemism, ways of formation, mechanism of euphemization, euphemistic effect, semantic shift, American political film discourse
Бібліографічний опис
Козлова, В. В. Особливості утворення евфемізмів в американському політичному кінодискурсі [Текст] / В. В. Козлова, І. С. Усатих // Науковий вісник ДДПУ імені І. Франка. Серія: Філологічні науки (мовознавство). – 2020. – № 13. – С. 74–79. – DOI: https://doi.org/10.24919/2663-6042.13.2020.214340.