Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.sspu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/8529
Title: Методика позитивного та негативного підкріплення в педагогічній психології
Other Titles: Methodology of Positive and Negative Reinforcement in Pedagogical Psychology
Authors: Скоробагатська, Оксана Іванівна
Skorobahatska, Oksana Ivanivna
Keywords: біхевіористична психологія
поведінка
навчання
позитивне підкріплення
негативне підкріплення
підкріплюючі стимули
behavioral psychology
behavior
training
positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement
reinforcing incentives
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: СумДПУ імені А. С. Макаренка
Citation: Скоробагатська, О. І. Методика позитивного та негативного підкріплення в педагогічній психології [Текст] / О. І. Скоробагатська // Педагогічні науки: теорія, історія, інноваційні технології : науковий журнал / МОН України, Сумський держ. пед. ун-т ім. А. С. Макаренка ; [редкол.: А. А. Сбруєва, М. А. Бойченко, О. Є. Антонова та ін.]. – Суми : СумДПУ ім. А. С. Макаренка, 2019. – № 9 (93). – С. 123–134. – DOI: 10.24139/2312-5993/2019.09/123-134.
Abstract: У статті розглянуто теоретичні положення методики позитивного та негативного підкріплення в контексті педагогічної психології. Проаналізовано сутність позитивного та негативного підкріплення в контексті біхевіористичного підходу. Розглянуто сутність закону ефекту Е. Торндайка; модель оперантної поведінки Б. Скіннера. Розглянуто специфіку та відмінність між термінами «заохочення» та «покарання», з одного боку, та «позитивне» і «негативне підкріплення», з іншого. З’ясовано різновиди підкріплення: позитивне заохочення, позитивне покарання, негативне заохочення, негативне покарання. Проаналізовано типові методи аверсивного контроля. З’ясовано особливості використання методики позитивного підкріплення у процесі навчання та виховання.
The article deals with theoretical provisions of the methodology of positive and negative reinforcement in the context of pedagogical psychology. The essence of positive and negative reinforcement in the context of the behavioral approach is analyzed. The peculiarities of the methodology use of positive reinforcement in the process of education and upbringing have been found out. Nowadays the problem of motivation to study is very important in the education and training sphere of Ukraine. One method of optimizing the learning process is the positive reinforcement method. The concept of “reinforcement” came from behavioral psychology. B. Skinner’s theory of reinforcement relies on the scientific findings of E. Thorndike, who developed an objective, mechanistic theory of teaching. As the studies result, E. Thorndike formulated the Law of Effect: any action that causes pleasure in a given situation is associated with given situation, so that when it occurs again, the occurrence of this action becomes more probable than before. On the contrary, any action that causes discomfort is separated from the situation, so that when it occurs again, the occurrence of a certain action becomes less likely. It is important to emphasize the important feature of the results of the E. Thorndike’s following studies: encouraging reaction leads to its strengthening, but the punishment does not give the obvious negative result for drawing a parallel. E. Thorndike’s experimental works significantly influenced B. Skinner’s scientific views. The American psychologist, the founder of the operant learning theory, B. Skinner proved that behavior that had positive consequences – was repeated, and behavior that had negative consequences, most likely did not repeat. A key structural unit of B. Skinner’s approach is response – an external part of behavior that can be associated with environmental events. Operant behavior is determined by the events that follow a reaction. That is, the behavior is followed by an investigation, and the nature of this investigation changes the body’s tendency to repeat this behavior in the future. Behavior management is done by choosing the type of reaction that needs to be reinforced and determining the degree of likelihood of its recurrence. The rate at which operant behavior is acquired and stored depends on the mode of reinforcement used (a certain time interval or a certain reaction interval). The logical extension of the reinforcement principle is that the behavior reinforcement in one situation is likely to recur when the body encounters other situations that resemble it. B. Skinner’s theory defines the concept of “stimuli generalization”, which is essentially realized as a tendency of reinforcement behavior to extend such situations. A special class of generalized conditional reinforcement incentives that define a complex system of interpersonal relationships is social reinforcement incentives. It can be attention, praise, social approval, commitment, subordination to others and more. These incentives are often very difficult, but they are important for human behavior in a variety of situations. In behavioral psychology, there are two types of reinforcement: positive (a pleasant stimulus that follows a desired response, enhances or maintains it at the same level, increases the likelihood of its recurrence) and negative (an unpleasant stimulus, which eliminates the desired response). The differences between the terms “encouragement” and “punishment”, on the one hand, and “positive” and “negative reinforcement” – on the other, should be noted. The term “promotion” can be used synonymously with the term “positive reinforcement factor”. However, punishment is not the same as a negative reinforcement factor. It is important to understand that the term “negative reinforcement” means cessation of unwanted events following one form or another; as well as positive reinforcement; it increases the likelihood of appropriate behavior. Punishment has the opposite effect: it reduces the likelihood of certain behavior. Reinforcement enhances reaction, punishment weakens it. From B. Skinner’s point of view, human behavior is also controlled by aversive stimuli. The two most common methods of aversive control are punishment and negative reinforcement. When punished, aversive event occurs, proportional to the reaction. Unlike punishment, negative reinforcement is the process by which the aversive stimulus, conditional or unconditional, is eliminated. A very important contribution to the study of the problem of positive and negative reinforcement was made by a contemporary American researcher, behavioral biologist Karen Pryor. Its designs represent an effective methodological platform for any teacher, trainer, or simply a person who wants to improve the learning process in any sphere. Therefore, learning with desire and pleasure can be overcome by many obstacles through internal reserves, which can only be accessed through joy. Man is a learning being, and the desire to know is one of his most pressing needs. So, the most important thing is not to extinguish that curiosity flame, wonder and joy that accompanies learning everything new, and to try to support it throughout the learning process.
URI: http://repository.sspu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/8529
Appears in Collections:Педагогічні науки: теорія, історія, інноваційні технології

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