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Title: Кримінальне переслідування православного духовенства Сумщини у 1937–1938 роках: умови, масштаби, наслідки
Other Titles: Criminal Prosecution of the Orthodox Clergy of Sumy Region in 1937–1938: Conditions, Scope, Consequences
Authors: Оліцький, В'ячеслав Олександрович
Olitskyi, Viacheslav Oleksandrovych
Keywords: православна церква
Orthodox church
National Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Полтавський національний педагогічний університет імені В. Г. Короленка
Citation: Оліцький, В. О. Кримінальне переслідування православного духовенства Сумщини у 1937–1938 роках: умови, масштаби, наслідки [Текст] / В. О. Оліцький // Історична пам'ять : науковий журнал / Полтавський національний педагогічний університет імені В. Г. Короленка ; редкол.: Р. А. Сітарчук, Л. Л. Бабенко, О. В. Коваленко та ін. – Полтава : ПНПУ імені В.Г. Короленка, 2018. – № 2(39). – С. 54–62.
Abstract: Стаття присвячена одному із важливих питань «Великого терору» – переслідуванню православного духовенства. Проаналізовано умови в яких відбувалося кримінальне переслідування на Сумщині. Встановлено, що починаючи із середини 1930-х років владою створювалася система для середовища спецслужб, яка б сприяла масовій фальсифікації кримінальних справ. Церковнослужителі потрапили до числа категорій громадян проти яких ця система була спрямована. Результатом цього стало масове кримінальне переслідування та фізичне знищення священнослужителів у 1937–1938 роках. Охарактеризовано масштаби репресій серед православного священства регіону та визначено наслідки цих дій для релігійного життя краю. З’ясовано, що масштаби розстрілів та ув’язнень відрізнялися в залежності від адміністративного підпорядкування районів, адже територія сучасної Сумської області була сформована лише у 1939 р. Масовий терор стосувався не лише діючих священнослужителів, а й тих, хто офіційно змінив сферу діяльності.
The article is devoted to one of the important issues of great terror, namely the prosecution of the Orthodox clergy. The conditions, under which the prosecution was conducted in the Sumy region, were analyzed. First of all, our attention was given to the creation an atmosphere in which the security service investigators would be able to put into practice the wide-range repression. Such conditions included a change in the procedure of investigation, which put it out of objectivity and transformed it into the formality, likewise, the establishment of limits for the extermination or arrestment of the population and direct indications of appropriate action. It has been estimated, that since the mid-1930s the governance had been creating such a system for the security services, which would contribute to mass falsification of criminal cases. Churchmen ranked among the categories of citizens against whom this system was directed. Consequently, the mass prosecution and physical destruction of the clergy were observed in 1937–1938. The scope of the repressions among the Orthodox clergy of the region was outlined and the consequences of these actions for the religious life of the region were defined. It was determined that the scope of the executions and imprisonment varied according to the administrative subordination of the districts, as the territory of the Sumy region was formed only in 1939. In 1937 the majority of the executions took place in the districts, which were part of the Kharkiv region. There were arrestments for 7–10 years in the Chernihiv region, and vice versa in 1938. Obviously, this was due to the position of the local leadership of the repressive bodies. Massive terror concerned not only acting ecclesiastics, but those who changed the sphere of activity officially. Working in the sphere of the national economy or even the change of place of living did not rescue the former clerics from the persecution. A particularly damaging blow was experienced by former churchmen and believers of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. The practice of collective criminal cases, which were combined to several dozens of participants from different districts, was used on the subject of them. The only charge was the involvement in the "counterrevolutionary nationalist organization", which actually meant adherence to the autocephalous church. None of the persecuted churchmen was charged with religious activity. Everyone was accused of anti-Soviet propaganda and agitation or counter-revolution. Notwithstanding, there is no evidence of such actions in criminal cases. The only evidence related to religious activity. In the aftermath of the repressions and "great terror" there was no Jewish functioning temple in Sumy region. Almost all the clergy were shot or imprisoned.
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