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Title: Створення сприятливих умов для розвитку елітної вищої технічної освіти в Німеччині
Other Titles: The Development of Elite Higher Technical Education in Germany
Authors: Чухно, Людмила Анатоліївна
Chukhno, Liudmyla Anatoliivna
Чайковська, Ольга
Chaikovska, Olha
Цар, Ірина Олегівна
Tsar, Iryna Olehivna
Keywords: інженерна освіта
організація навчання
вищий технічний навчальний заклад
принцип меритократизму
сприятливі умови
академічні проблеми
higher engineering schools
French Universities
competitive basis
gifted students
new type of higher technical institution
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: СумДПУ імені А. С. Макаренка
Citation: Чухно, Л. Створення сприятливих умов для розвитку елітної вищої технічної освіти в Німеччині [Текст] / Л. Чухно, О. Чайковська, І. Цар // Педагогічні науки: теорія, історія, інноваційні технології : науковий журнал / Міністерство освіти і науки України, Сумський державний педагогічний університет імені А. С. Макаренка ; редкол.: А. А. Сбруєва, М. А. Бойченко, О. Є. Антонова [та ін.]. – Суми : Вид-во СумДПУ імені А. С. Макаренка, 2017. – № 5 (69). – С. 64–76.
Abstract: У статті розглянуто історичний розвиток елітної вищої інженерної освіти Європи. Порушено питання традиційних університетів Франції та виникнення в післяреволюційні часи перших Великих шкіл країни, відбору талановитих за принципом меритократизму - селекції на основі здібностей та організацію в них навчального процесу. Визначено їх вплив на виникнення ВНЗ такого типу в інших країнах Західної Європи, зокрема Німеччини, їх місце й роль у загальній системі вищої освіти ФРН.
Introduction. The article deals with the historical development of European Elite Higher Engineering education that originates from Roman Empire during Julius Caesar reign. The rank of "Pontific Maximus" that is translated from Latin as "Bridge builder" shows the significance of this profession in elite education of Old Times. Analysis of relevant research. N. Karlov, N. Kudriavtsev, I. Tuieva, O. Vorozheikyna, B. Skoromovskyi, I. Herder, I. Herbart, V. fon Humboldt, V. Harnish consider the issue of favourable conditions of Higher Technical education development in Europe as well as Elite Higher education in Germany. The problem wasn't paid much attention in terms of Ukrainian pedagogics. Aim of the Study. The purpose of the study is to analyze the origin, development of Higher Engineering Education, its importance both in elite education of Old Times and modern system of education, the reasons of first Higher Technical establishments formation in Europe, in France in particular, the studying process in such schools and their influence on formation of similar Higher schools in Germany. Research Methods. Methods of scientific sources of information analysis, induction and deduction (generalization of information), comparative analysis (the historical aspect) were used in the paper. Results. At first, technical engineers created new products not taking into account the basic knowledge of this science. Such technology turned out to be exhausted. The need of qualified elite staff trainings and increasing of classical specialties appeared in post¬revolutionary France. But French universities were not successful in renewing the traditional system of Higher education. As the result, the high schools with technical and natural science specialties such as schools of bridges, mining schools appeared. The High Polytechnic School was founded in 1795 and took the leading position among education institutions of new type. Today such schools are of great importance in education system of France not only due to prestigious diploma the students get but also due to development of intellectual and scientific activities. Moreover, the attention is paid to gifted students. The study is focused on the process of choosing the talented students and their entering the elite High School on the competitive basis and high entrance marks. The principle of gifted student selection on the basis of his skills was used in France. The Big Schools scientifically and technically oriented were ruled by several ministries, had three year length of study and gave the diploma of engineer (Diplome d'Ingenieur). The students entered such schools on the competitive basis after two years of preparatory trainings in mathematics and physics. Conclusions. The polytechnic school in France became the pattern of a new type of higher technical institution which was the separate structural unit in the system of higher education of some countries. Germany in its turn started to create High Polytechnic Schools in the second half of the 19th century. In old traditional German universities technical Sciences almost didn't take place. From the 18th century education institutions started to develop and later in the next century transformed into High Technical Schools: Munich in 1868, Aachen in 1870, Stuttgart in 1876, Darmstadt in 1877, Berlin in 1879, Dresden in 1890, Danzig in 1904 and Breslau in 1910.
Appears in Collections:Педагогічні науки: теорія, історія, інноваційні технології

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